Acacia (gum arabic). A gummy exudation from acacia trees (Acacia senegal, family Leguminosae, Africa and India). Gathered in the form of tears or fragments; supplied in the form of a white granular powder. Used as a demulcent and an emulsifying agent; also as an excipient in the official troches, pills, etc. Nonpoisonous, but constipating.

Acetphenetidinum ( acetphenetidin, phenacetin ) . A phenol derivative prepared by an elaborate process in which phenol is acted upon by nitric acid. White, glistening powder or scales; odorless; tasteless; almost insoluble in water. Antipyretic, analgesic, cardiac depressant. Largely used in headache remedies.

Dose, 0.2 to 0.65 gm. (3 to 10 grains).

Acetylsalicylic Acid (aspirin). An acetic-acid ester of salicylic acid White, crystalline powder. Prepared synthetically by a patented process. Antirheurnatic, analgesic, antipyretic A valuable remedy in the treatment of rheumatic conditions, especially when pain is a symptom; headache and intestinal fermentation; is also diuretic.

Dose, 0.3 to 1.3 gm. (5 to 20 grains ) .

Acidum Aceticum Glaciale (glacial acetic acid, 99 per cent). Now issued in place of the 36 per cent acetic acid, U. S. P. Clear, colorless liquid, having an intensely strong, vlnegarlike, irritating odor; pure acid taste and acid reaction. Made by subjecting oak wood to destructive distillation and purifying the resulting liquid. Rarely used internally, but is largely used for preparing the official vinegars, acetates, and some liniments; also used as a reagent in urinalysis. Acidum

Aceticum Dilutum (diluted acetic acid, U.S.P.) is the official vinegar, and is sometimes given as a diuretic.

Dose of the diluted acetic acid, 4 mils (1 fluidram).

Acidum Benzoicum (benzoic acid, flowers of benzoin). 0btained by subjecting gum benzoin to sublimation and synthetically from the urine of cattle. An ingredient in camphorated tincture of opium. Combined with the alkalis it forms the benzoates, which are used as preservatives and administered to relieve intestinal fermentation. Dose, 0.2 to 0.65 gm. {3 to 0 grains ) .

Acidum Boricum (boric acid, boracic acid). Obtained from sodium borate, which is mined in large quantities in the Pacific States, by decomposition with sulphuric acid, evaporating, crystallizing, and is supplied in the form of a very fine powder. Little used internally. Used externally as a dusting powder and in solution as a cleansing and weakly antiseptic lotion.

Dose, 0.3 to 1 gm. (5 to 15 grains).

Acidum Citricum (citric acid). Large colorless crystals obtained from the juice of lemons, limes, etc. Used to prepare those salts known as citrates; enters into the preparation of many effervescent salts. Administered as a refrigerant and as a preventive of scurvy.

Dose, 0.3 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains).

Acidum Hydrochloricum (hydrochloric acid, HCI, muriatic acid, spirit of salt) Made by decomposing common salt with sulphuric acid, washing, and dissolving the gas in water. A colorless, fuming liquid, having a suffocating, pungent odor and very acid taste. Given in some forms of gastric indigestion, highly diluted. The official diluted HC1 (10 per cent) is given in doses of 0.3 to 2 mils (5 to 30 minims) in water, and should be taken through a glass tube.

Acidum Nitricum (nitric acid, aqua fortis). Made by decomposing sodium nitrate with sulphuric acid. A colorless, fuming liquid with suffocating odor, very caustic and corrosive, and strongly acid taste.

Acidum Picricum (picric acid, trinitrophenol ) Fine, bright yellow, needle-shaped crystals or crystalline powder. Made by adding pure phenol to strong sulphuric acid and then adding nitric acid, purifying, and crystallizing. used as a test for albumin in urine and in the treatment of burns in saturated solution. Not used internally.

Acidum Salicylicum (salicylic acid). light fine, white prismatic needles or white crystalline powder. Native in oil of gaultheria and several other oils from the same family, but made synthetically from sodium phenol. used as an antipyretic and antiseptic, principally in the treatment of rheumatism and gout. It is the acid radical in all salicylates.

Dose, 0.3 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains).

Acidum Sulphuricum (sulphuric acid, oil of vitriol). Made by vaporising sulphur, mixing these fumes with nitrous fumes and steam, and purifying by redistillation. A colorless, oily liquid,

without odor, an intensely acid burning taste, and highly corrosive. Mixed with water or alcohol it produces great heat. used in indigestion, cholera, and diarrhea.

The official diluted sulphuric acid is the form in which it is administered, in doses of 0.3 to 2 mils (5 to 30 minims).

Acidum Sulphuricum Aromaticum (aromatic sulphuric acid, elixir of vitriol). The best form in which to administer this acid. Made by mixing 109 mils of sulphuric acid with 50 mils of tincture of ginger, 1 mil of oil of cinnamon, and sufficient alcohol to measure 1000 mils of finished product. Given for the same purposes and in the same dose as diluted sulphuric acid.

Acidum Tannicum {tannic acid, tannin, gallotannic acid, digallic acid ) A light, yellowish, noncrystalline powder, or Spongy masses, turning darker on exposure to light and air. Obtained from nutgalls or oak bark. It is used as a powerful astringent. Converted into gallic acid in the intestines, and when so converted is absorbed to act as a systemic astringent for the control of hemorrhages. Powerfully styptic locally.

Dose, 0.2 to 0.65 gm. (3 to 10 grains).

AcidumTartaricum (tartaric acid). Large, colorless prisms or fine white powder. Obtained from the deposit in wine casks by treating with chalk and then with sulphuric acid and crystallizing. One of the ingredients in Seidlitz powder (pulvis effervescens compositus). Used also in many of the effervescent salts and effervescent drinks.

Dose, 0.3 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains).

Adeps Benzoinatus (benzoinated lard). Prepared by melting pure hog's lard and keeping 2 per cent of its weight of gum benzoin in it, while melted, for two hours. Used as an ointment base. The benzoin is added as a preservative toprevent rancidity. Will permit the incorporation of 20 per cent of its weight of water with it.

Adeps Lanae Hydrosus (hydrated wool fat, lanolin). The purified fat or grease obtained from sheep's wool and which has had incorporated with it not more than 30 per cent of water. Used as an ointment base. Anhydrous wool fat will permit 100 per cent of its weight of water to be incorporated with it.

Aether (ether, incorrectly called sulphuric ether). A transparent, colorless, volatile liquid. Made by acting on alcohol with sulphuric acid and distilling. Very inflammable.. Used in pharmacy as a solvent; in surgery as a general anesthetic, by inhalation, or a local anesthetic when sprayed upon the part; in medicine as a cardiac stimulant, carminative, and antispasmodic.

Dose, 0.3 to 4 mils (5 to 60 minims}.

Aetheris Spiritus Compositus (compound spirit of ether, Hoffmann's anodyne). A solution in alcohol of ether and ethereal oil. Used as an anodyne and hypnotic.

Dose,0.3 to 8 mils (5 minims to 2 fluidrams).

Aetheris Spiritus Nitrosi (spirit of nitrous ether, sweet spirit of niter). An alcoholic solution of ethyl nitrite, prepared by adding a solution of sodium nitrite to a mixture of sulphuric acid and alcohol, and when the reaction is completed neutralizing the solution, separating, and mixing immediately with twenty-two times its weight of alcohol. Used as a diuretic, diaphoretie, antipyretic, and carminative.

Dose, 2 to 8 mils (1/2 to 2 fluidrams).

Aethylis Chloridum (ethyl chlorid). A colorless, very volatile liquid, made by distilling a mixture of equal volumes of hydrochloric acid and alcohol, and condensing with ice or snow around the receiver. Used as a spray to produce local anesthesia, and as a general anesthetic by inhalation.

Alumen (alum, potassium alum, aluminum and potassium sulphate). Made principally from aluminum clay by treating it with sulphuric acid and then adding potassium sulphate, forming the double salt. Large prismatic crystals, colorless, and having a strongly astringent taste. Supplied in the form of fine white powder. Used as an astringent, both internally and in the form of gargles and lotions.

Dose, 0.3 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains). Used also as an emetic in doses of 4 gm. (1 dram)

Ammoniae Aqua Fortior (stronger ammonia water). A colorless, transparent liquid, having an excessively pungent and penetrating odor, caustic and alkaline taste, and strongly alkaline reaction. Obtained from the ammonia liquor produced in the manufacture of coal gas. Used as a vesicant, and to prepare the 10 per cent ammonia water. This preparation contains 28 per cent by weight of ammonia gas

Ammoniae Spiritus Aromaticus (aromatic spirit of ammonia). Ammonium carbonate is dissolved in ammonia water and water and after 12 hours is added to an alcoholic solution of the oils of lemon, nutmeg, and lavender flowers, after mixing, the solution is allowed to stand for 24 hours, and then filtered. Used as a stimulant and antacid, well diluted.

Dose, 1 to 4 mils (15 to 60 minims).

Ammonia Carbonas (ammonium carbonate, Sal volatile). White, hard, translucent masses, having a strong odor of ammonia, sharp saline taste, and alkaline reaction. Made by the dry sublimation of ammonium sulphate with chalk. Used as a stimulant expectorant and as heart stimulant.

Dose, 0.1 to 0.3 am. (2 to 5 grains).

Ammonii Chloridum {ammonium chloride, sal ammoniac). White crystalline powder or fine granular crystals. Made chiefly from gas liquor by neutralising with hydrochloric acid and subliming. Used as a stimulant expectorant.

Dose, 0.2 to 05 gm. (3 to 8 grains).

Amylis Nitris (amyl nitrite). A clear yellowish liquid, supplied in the form of 5-minim pearls or glass bulbs. Used in asthma, angina pectoris, and similar diseases to relax spasms, by inhaling the vapor from cotton or a handkerchief in which one of the pearls has been crushed.

Antimonii et Potassii Tartras (antimony and potassium tartrate, tartar emetic). Usually in the form of a white granular powder. Made by adding to a boiling solution of antimony oxide sufficient potassium bitartrate to neutralize, filtering the solution, evaporating, and crystallizing. Used as an expectorant, diaphoretlc, and emetic.

Dose as an expectorant and diaphoretic. 0.002 to 0.008 gm. ( 1/30 to 1/8 grain); as an emetic 0.03 to 0.065 gm. (l /2 to 1 grain).

Antipyrina (antipyrin). Colorless crystals or white crystalline powder. Made by a synthetic process. Analgesic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, and cardiac depressant.

Dose, 0.1 to 0.65 gm. (2 to 10 grains).

Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi (hydrogen dioxide water, hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). A 3% permanent solution containing about 10 volumes of available oxygen. Prepared by decomposing barium peroxid with phosphoric acid in the presence of water, the water taking up the oxygen set free and forming H2O2 and the solution rendered very slightly acid by adding a few drops of diluted sulphuric acid. Antiseptic and disinfectant, especially in the treatment of infected wounds, ulcers, etc.; also in sprays for inflammatory conditions of the nose and throat. Sometimes given internally in the treatment of excessively acid conditions of the stomach in doses of 3 to 4 mils (40 to 60 minims).

Argenti Nitras (silver nitrate). Colorless flat crystals, becoming grey or greyish black on exposure to light and air or in the presence of organic matter. Made by dissolving pure silver in nitric acid, evaporating, and crystallising. Used externally as a caustic and stimulant to tissues that heal slowly; internally as an astringent and stimulant in the treatment of gastritis and diarrhea.

Dose, 0.008 to 0.032 gm. (1/8 to 1/2 grain). Must be used with great caution, as it is a powerful poison.

Argenti Nitras Fusus (fused silver nitrate, lunar caustic, molded stick caustic). Made by adding 4 per cent of hydrochloric acid to silver nitrate, melting at as low a temperature as possible, and pouring into molds. Used externally only as caustic.

Argyrol (silver vitellin). An albuminous salt of silver, made by a patented process. Contains about 30 per cent of metallic silver. In the form of brownish-black scales or powder. Freely soluble in water. Used in the treatment of gonorrheal infections of all kinds; 10 per cent to 50 per cent solutions for urethral injections and instillation into the eye; I/2000 to 1/5000 solutions for irrigations of the bladder. Fifty per cent solutions have produced no irritation or pain. Not used internally.

Balsamum Peruvianum (balsam of Peru). A substance of similar consistence to thick molasses, containing resin, volatile oil, and cinnamic acid. Used locally in the treatment of chronic indolent ulcers, local tuberculosis (of the skin, bone, larynx, etc.) , and internally in the treatment of chronic catarrhal conditions, asthma, syphilis, etc.

Dose, 0.3 to 1 mil ( 5 to 15 minims) diffused in water, sirup, or emulsion.

Belladonnae Emplastrum ( belladonna plaster ) . Machine-spread plasters, made by mixing 30 per cent extract of belladonna leaves with 70 per cent adhesive plaster in a suitable vessel and spreading upon muslin. Used as an anodyne application in neuralgic and rheumatic affections.

Belladonnae Extractum Foliorum (extract of belladonna leaves). This is one of the extracts of pilular consistence, and is dark green in colon Used as a sedative, narcotic, diuretic, mydriatic, and antispasmodic, and to diminish the secretions of the mucous glands and membranes.

Dose, 0.006 to 0.032 gm. (1/10 to 1/2 grain).

Benzoini Tinctura Composita (compound tincture of benzoin, friars' balsam, Turlington's balsam) . A dark brown alcoholic liquid. Made by dissolving benzoin, purified aloes, storax, and balsam of tofu in alcohol and filtering. Used as an expectorant and inhalant.

Dose, 2 to 8 mils {l to 2 fluidrams).

Bismuthi Subgallas (bismuth subgallate, dermatol). A bright yellow powder made by triturating bismuth trioxid with water, gallic acid is added in excess, the mixture allowed to stand 24 hours, and the precipitate washed and dried. Used as a sedative astringent in diarrhea and dysentery,

and externally as a drying, astringent, dusting powder in the treatment of ulcers and wounds. Dose, 0.32 to 1.33 gm. (5 to 20 grains).

Bismuthi Subnitras (bismuth subnitrate). Heavy white powder, made by dissolving metallic bismuth in nitric acid, treating with sodium carbonate and ammonia water to free it from arsenical impurities, redissolving in nitric acid, and precipitating the pure bismuth subnitrate by pouring the solution into water; the precipitate is then collected, washed, and dried. Used internally as a sedative astringent in the treatment of intestinal and gastric disorders, especially diarrhea and putrefactive conditions.

Dose, 0.32 to 2.00 gm. (5 to 30 grains). It acts mechanically by forming a coating over the inflamed areas. Used also as a dusting powder in the treatment of ulcers.

Buchu Fluidextractum (fluidextract of buchu) from buchu leaves. Dark green alcoholic liquid. Used as a tonic, astringent, and disinfectant to the urinary tract.

Dose, 1 to 4 mils (15 to 60 minims).

Caffeina Citrata (citrated caffein). Caffein, the principle obtained from coffee and tea (and very feebly basic), is mixed with an equal weight of citric acid, dissolved in water, the solution evaporated to dryness, and the resulting solid reduced to a fine powder. Used as a cardiac and cerebral stimulant, and as a diuretic. Very valuable in narcotism to produce wakefulness.

Dose, 0.032 to 0.32 gm. (1/2 to 5 grains).

Camphora (camphor). A stearopten (solid volatile oil) obtained from the camphor trees and purified by sublimation. White, translucent masses, readily soluble in alcohol, ether, and chloroform; sparingly soluble in water. Used principally externally, but sometimes given internally as an antispasmodic, stimulant, and carminative.

Dose, 0.1 to 0.5 gm. (2 to 8 grains).

Capsici emplastrum (capsicum plaster). Made by applying oleoresin of capsicum to the surface of adhesive plaster (0.25 gm. to each 15 cm. square), and drying. Used as a rubefacient

Capsici Fluidextractum (fluidextract of capsicum ). Made from the ripe fruit of the African cayenne pepper. Used as a stomachic stimulant and carminative, and as a condiment. Stimulates the secretions of the salivary gastric, and intestinal glands.

Dose, 0.032 to 0.20 mil (1/2 to 3 minims). Applied externally as a rubefacient.

Cardamomi Tinctura Composita (compound tincture of cardamom). A 6 percent tincture made with diluted alcohol and aromatics. It is used as a carminative and as a flavor.

Dose, 2 to 4 mils (1/2 to 1 fluidram).

Caryophylli Oleum (oil of cloves). A volatile oil distilled from the dried flower buds of Eugenia aromatics, and must yield (by assay) not less than 80 per cent of eugenol. A colorless, or pale yellow, thin, oily liquid, that becomes thicker and darker by age. Used as an aromatic and as an anesthetic application in toothache. Also in microscopy, to clear tissues for mounting.

Cataplasma Kaolini (cataplasm of kaolin, clay poultice). A substitute for antiphlogistine. Contains kaolin, boric acid, and glycerin, with thymol, methyl salicylate, and oil of peppermint. Must be thoroughly and carefully mixed. Applied to local inflammation where a poultice is desired. Used by many in pneumonia and articular rheumatism.

Chloralum Hydratum (hydrated chloral, chloral hydrate). Colorless rhomboidal crystals, very volatile and deliquescent. Made by treating absolute alcohol with chlorin gas for six or eight weeks, then with sulphuric acid; then mixing with the necessary amount of water and crystallizing. Used as a powerful nervous sedative, in nervous insomnia, hysteria, and the various forms of insanity. Also in delirium tremens, tetanus, and strychnin poisoning.

Dose, 0.32 to 1.30 gm. (5 to 20 grains). In tetanus and strychnin poisoning it may be given in three or four times this maximum dose, and repeated in four or five hours.

Chloroformum (chloroform). A heavy, colorless, volatile liquid, made by reacting on acetone with chlorinated lime. Used externally as a rubefaeient and vesicant; in surgery as a general anesthetic by inhalation; internally as a carminative and sedative.

Dose, 0.18 to 0.49 mils. (3 to 8 minims). In large doses it is a powerful narcotic, and acts also as an irritant.

Cinchonae Tinctura Composita (compound tincture of cinchona). A tincture made with 67.5 per cent alcohol, 7.5 per cent glycerin, and 25 per cent water as a menstruum, and containing the soluble principles of 10 per cent red cinchona bark, 8 per cent bitter orange peel and 2 per cent serpentaria root. Commonly called tincture of red bark, Huxham's tincture, etc. A valuable bitter tonic, often used in the treatment of malaria. Dose, 2 to 8 mils ( (1/2 to 2 fluidrams).

Cocainae Hydrochloridum (cocain hydrochloric). The neutral hydrochloric of an alkaloid obtained from several species of coca. Colorless, transparent prisms, flaky, lustrous leaflets, or white crystalline powder. Freely soluble in water. Largely used as a local anesthetic, mydriatic, and cerebral stimulant. For local anesthesia, 2 per cent to 4 per cent solutions are most frequently used, though sometimes the strength may vary from one-fourth of 1 per cent to 10 per cent. As a mydriatic its effect is brief, the dilatation passing away in four to eight hours, and no paralysis of accommodation is produced.

Dose, 0.016 to 0.032 gm. (l to 1/2 grain).

Codeina (codein). An alkaloid obtained from opium, and is also prepared from morphin by methylation. White, prismatic crystals or crystalline powder. Used largely as a sedative in the treatment of coughs to lessen the irritation in the respiratory tract. Of great value in the cough of tuberculosis.

Dose, 0.016 to 0.064 gm. (1/4 to 1 grain).

Collodium Cantharidatum (cantharidal collodion, blistering collodion). A yellowish-green liquid, having an ethereal odor. Made by treating cantharides with chloroform until exhausted, evaporating off the chloroform, and dissolving the residue in flexible collodion. Used externally only as a blistering agent.

Collodium Flexile (flexible collodion). A pale yellowish or colorless liquid of sirupy consistence, having an ethereal odor. Made by dissolving pyroxylin (one of the guncottons) in ether and alcohol. Used externally only to form a noncontractile film over abrasions and to attach small dressings; also to bring medicinal substances into contact with the skin.

Creosoti Carbonas (creosote carbonate, creosotal). A very thick, sirupy liquid, pale yellow in colon Employed in the treatment of pneumonia and some forms of gastric disturbances, as it is much less irritating than creosote.

Dose, 0.5 to 1 mil (8 to 15 minims).

Creosotum (creosote). A mixture of phenols and phenol derivatives, chiefly guaiacol and creosol, obtained by the distillation of wood tar, preferably that derived from beechwood, hence the name " beechwood creosote." An almost colorless, yellowish, oily liquid; must have no pink tinge. Antiseptic, caustic, anesthetic when applied locally, and antiemetic. It possesses the property of preserving tissues. Because of its caustic properties it is a powerful irritant poison. Given in doses of 0.032 to 0.33 mil (1/2 to 5 minims) in the treatment of gastric disorders; in doses of 0.33 to 1 mil (5 to 15 minims) (beginning with a small dose and gradually increasing) in the treatment of tuberculosis.

Eucainae Hydrochloridum (eucain hydrochloric). A preparation made synthetically. Used to replace cocain hydrochloric, as it is considered less toxic as a local anesthetic. Does not dilate the pupil, and its solutions can be sterilised by boiling. Solutions for the eye, 1 per cent to 2 per cent, for mucous surfaces, 2 per cent to 5 per cent.

Eucalyptol. An organic oxid (cineol) obtained from the volatile oil of eucalyptus. Colorless oily liquid, characteristic odor, and burning taste. Used in the official liquor antisepticus, and is given internally in catarrhal conditions of the mucous membranes, both respiratory and genito-urinary.

Dose, 0.06 to 0.5 mil (1 to 8 minims).

Ferri Chloridi Tinctura (tincture of ferric chlorid, tincture of iron). A bright brownish liquid, made by diluting 350 mils of solution of ferric chlorid with 650 mils alcohol, and allowing the mixture of liquids to stand in a closely covered vessel in a cool place for at least three months. Then transfer to glass stoppered bottles. The object of allowing this liquid to remain for three months before using is to allow the development of ethereal compounds, which are supposed to give this preparation its diuretic properties. Used as a chalybeate tonic and styptic.

Dose, 0.65 to 2.50 mils (10 to 40 minims) well diluted, through a tube to protect the teeth.

Ferri et Quinine Citras (citrate of iron and quinin). Thin, transparent scales Of a greenish, golden-yellow color, odorless, with a ferruginous taste. Deliquescent. Made by adding to a solution of ferric citrate quinin, citric acid, and treating with ammonia water; then evaporating to the consistence of a sirup and pouring on glass plates to dry, that it may be obtained in scale form. Chalybeate tonic.

Dose, 0.20 to 0.65 gm. (3 to 10 grains) .

Creta Preparata (prepared chalk, drop chalk). This is native calcium carbonate freed from most of its impurities by elutriation. A white, or greyish-white, fine powder, often molded into cones. Used as an ingredient in chalk mixture and compound chalk powder in the treatment of diarrhea, and as an antacid.

Dose, 0.33 to 4 gm. (5 to 60 grains).

Cupri Sulphas (copper sulphate, blue vitriol, bluestone). Large, deep-blue crystals, or pale blue crystalline powder. Made by dissolving metallic copper in diluted sulphuric acid, evaporating and crystallizing. Used as an emetic, astringent, and phosphorus antidote when given internally. As a caustic when applied externally. Dose as an emetic, 0.33 gm. (5 grains ), which may be repeated once only after 15 minutes; as an astringent, 0.008 to 0.032 gm. (one eighth to one-half grain); as an antidote to phosphorus, same as for emetic.

Digitalis Tincture (tincture of digitalis). Prepared from leaves gathered from plants of the second year's growth at the commencement of flowering. Powerful cardiac stimulant, producing greater force of contractions of the heart muscle, and reducing number of beats per minute, with increased arterial pressure. Because of this increased arterial pressure it acts as a powerful diuretic.

Dose, 0.33 to 1 mil ( 5 to 1 5 minims ).

Ergotae Fluidextractum (fluid extract of ergot). Prepared from ergot of rye (a fungous growth that replaces the grain of rye) that has been recently ground and is less than 1 year old. Menstruum is diluted alcohol , to which 2 per cent acetic acid has been added, to fix the alkaloids in solution, and to extract them from the oil, all of which is not dissolved in the menstruum. Used internally in the treatment of hemorrhage, as it is a powerful vasoconstrictor. It also acts powerfully upon the uterus.

Dose, 1 to 4 mils (16 to 60 minims).

Ferri Pyrophosphas Solubilis (soluble ferric pyrophosphate) . Thin, apple-green, transparent scales. Made by treating ferric citrate with sodium pyrophosphate in solution and making in scale form as other scale salts of iron. Mild chalybeate tonic. Dose, 0.065 to 0.33 gm. (1 to 6 grains).

Gentianae Tinctura Composita ( compound tincture of gentian). Prepared from gentian root, cardamom, and bitter orange peel, the menstruum being alcohol 600 mils and water 400 mils.A valuable bitter tonic, largely employed both alone and as a vehicle for more potent tinctures.

Dose, 2 to 8 mils (1 1/2 to 2 fluidrams ).

Glandulae Suprarenales Extractum (suprarenal extract, solution of adrenalin chlorid, 1/1000 solution). A solution prepared from the dried, prepared suprarenal glands of sheep or ox which have been treated with hydrochloric acid and diluted with normal salt solution to a I/1000 solution. Powerful cardiac stimulant and vasoconstrictor. Used in minor surgery to render the tissue bloodless, especially in operations on the nose and throat.

Dose, as a heart stimulant, 0.33 to 0.65 mil (5 to 10 minims).

Glycerinum (glycerin). A clear, colorless liquid, thick and sirupy, with a sweet taste, producing a sensation of warmth in the mouth. Obtained by the decomposition of fats and fixed oils in soap making and the preparation of lead plaster. It is a valuable solvent and antiseptic. As it absorbs moisture from the air, it tends to keep substances from becoming hard.

Glycyrrhizae Extractum Pulvis (powdered extract of glycyrrhiza (licorice) ). The extract of the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, reduced to fine powder. A dark brown powder having a very sweet taste. Used as a demulcent and for the administration of bitter medicines to mask their taste. Nonpoisonous. One of the ingredients in compound mixture of glycyrrhiza.

Glycyrrhizae Pulvis Compositus (compound powder of glycyrrhiza, compound licorice powder). One of the official powders, containing senna, glycyrrhiza, washed sulphur, sugar, all in fine powder, to which is added oil of fennel, and the whole uniformly mixed. Used as a mild laxative (especially valuable in the treatment of the constipation occurring in cases of hemorrhoids) and as a purgative. Dose, 4 to 8 gm. ( 1 to 2 drams ) .

Gossypii Seminis Oleum (cottonseed oil). A fixed oil expressed from cotton seed. Used in liniments. Will not saponify with limewater. A pale yellow, oily liquid.

Dose, 4 to 15 mils (1 to 4 fluidrams).

Guaiacol. Colorless solid or liquid (crystalline solid below 28 C and is one of the chief constituents of creosote. Also prepared synthetically. Its internal use is for the same conditions as require the administration of phenol. Applied to the skin, 1 to 3 mils painted on the thigh, chest, or abdomen, it acts as an antipyretic, the temperature having been known to fall several degrees in an hour. Its effect is temporary.

Hexamethylenamina (hexamethylenamin, urotropin, formin}. Obtained by the action of ammonia upon formaldehyd. Powerful diuretic, antiseptic and disinfectant to the genito-urinary tract. Of special value in the treatment of cystitis of gonorrheal origin and as an eliminant for uric acid.

Dose, 0.33 to 1.30 gm. (5 to 20 grains), well diluted.

Homatropine Hydrobromidum (homatropin hydrobromid). The hydrobromid of an alkaloid artificially produced from atropin. Used as a substitute for atropin and its salts in ophthalmic practice for producing mydriasis, as its effects are not so violent or long lasting. Used in solutions varying in strength from I/240 to 1/60. Complete dilatation of the pupil with paralysis of accommodation will be produced by five or six instillations in an hour of a 1 per cent solution; this effect will entirely pass off in 20 to 30 hours.

Hydrargyri Chloridum Corrosivum (corrosive chlorid of mercury, bichlorid, corrosive sublimate). Heavy, colorless crystals or crystalline masses. Made by mixing sulphate of mercury with common salt and subliming. Used internally as a tonic, alterative, and antisyphilitic; externally as an antiseptic and disinfectant. Dose, 0.001 to 0.008 gm. (1/50 to 1/8 grain.)

Hydrargyri Chloridum Mite ( mild chlorid of mercury, calomel). A white, heavy, impalpable powder, becoming yellowish white upon being triturated with strong pressure. Made by mixing metallic mercury with mercuric sulphate, then with common salt, and subjecting the mixture to sublimation, and washing the sublimate to remove mercuric chlorid. Used internally as a purgative and cholagogue and as an alterative; externally as a dusting powder and in ointments (10 per cent to 50 per cent) in venereal prophylaxis and in the treatment of various skin diseases. Dose, 0.0065 to 0.65 gm. (1/10 to 10 grains) . Calomel that has become greyish or blackish in color should not be used, as it has deteriorated and is impure.

Hydrargyri Massa (mass of mercury, blue mass, blue pill}. Made by triturating 33 per cent of metallic mercury with glycerin and honey of rose and adding althea and glycyrrhiza (both in the form of fine powder) to reduce the finished product to a pilular consistence, the whole being uniformly mixed. A valuable alterative, as well as one of the forms in which mercury is administered as a purgative and cholagogue.

Dose as an alterative, 0.032 to 0.065 gm. ( 1/2 to 1 grain ); as a purgative and cholagogue 0.2 to 0.65 gm. (3 to 10 grains).

Hydrargyri Nitratis Unguentum (ointment of nitrate of mercury, citrine ointment). Made by incorporating a solution of metallic mercury in nitric acid with lard which has had nitric acid added to it and, after the reaction has ceased, stirring until cool. Used in various skin diseases and in the treatment of inflamed eyelids.

Hydrargyri Oleatum (oleate of mercury). Made by treating yellow mercuric oxid with oleic acid, and is used externally only as a substitute for mercurial ointment. It is more readily absorbed by the skin, but is not as easily preserved as the ointment. Strength, 25 per cent.

Hydrargyri Oxidum Flavum (yellow mercuric oxid). A light orange-yellow, heavy, impalpable powder. Made by treating corrosive mercuric chlorid in solution with solution of sodium hyrdroxid, colIecting, washing, and drying the precipitate. Used externally only in the treatment of ulcers and ulcerated eyelids in the form of ointment, usually in the proportion of 1 grain to 2 drams of petrolatum or wool fat.

Hydrargyri Salicylas (mercuric salicylate). Used as an alterative in the treatment of syphilis, as it is less irritant to the alimentary tract than other compounds of mercury; also given by intramuscular injection, which produces no local irritation and brings the system rapidly under the influence of mercury.

Dose, 0.016 to 0.065 gm. (1/4 to 1 grain).

Hydrargyri Unguentum (ointment of mercury, mercurial ointment, blue ointment). Made by extinguishing 500 gm. metallic mercury with 20 gm. oleate of mercury, then incorporating with 250 gm. benzoinated lard and 230 gm. prepared suet which have previously been melted. The object is to obtain the mercury in a very fine state of division for inunction. The mercury must be invisible under a magnifying glass of 10 diameters. Used in the treatment of syphilis and to bring the system under the influence of mercury; also in glandular swellings.

Hydrargyrum Ammoniatum (ammoniated mercury, white precipitate). Prepared by precipitating a solution of mercuric chlorid with ammonia water added to excess and washing and drying at a temperature below 86 F. Used in the treatment of skin diseases, externally only, in the form of ointment.

Hyoscyami Extractum (extract of hyoscyamus, extract of henbane). Prepared by evaporating the fluid extract to pilular consistence at a low heat. Used as a hypnotic, nervous sedative, and analgesic; also in some forms of hysteria and insanity.

Dose, 0.032 to 0.13 gm. (l to 2 grains}.

Ichthyol (ammonium sulphoichthyolate). A tarry looking substance, about the consistence of very thick sirup, having a disagreeable odor. Obtained by treating mineral masses found in the Tyrolese Alps containing animal residues of fish, etc. Purified by distillation. Used as an alterative, anodyne discutient, in the form of ointments and lotions, in the treatment of inflammatory conditions. Given internally in intestinal indigestion as an antifermentatlve.

Dose, 0.33 to 1 gm. (5 to 15 grains ).

Iodoformum (iodoform, triiodomethane, CHI3). A fine lemonyellow crystalline powder. Made by adding iodin to a hot mixture of alcohol, water, and potassium carbonate, then passing a stream of chlorin gas through the mixture, filtering out the iodoform, and drying it in the open air. Used locally as an antiseptic and anesthetic dressing to wounds and ulcers. It is also used internally as an alterative in doses of 0.065 to .2 gm. (1 to 3 grains). It is said to possess some anesthetic properties when applied locally, and is a stimulant.

Iodum (iodin). This element is obtained from sea water (by electrolysis) and various other sources, but principally from the masses of seaweeds obtained from the coasts of Norway. The seaweeds are burned, the ashes lixiviated, and the resulting salts treated to obtain iodin and bromin. Iodin is applied externally as a powerful counterirritant, disinfectant, and parasiticide. Given internally (rarely ) as an alterative.

Dose, 0.016 to 0.065 gm. (l to 1 grain).

Ipecacuanhae et Opii Pulvis (powder of ipecac and opium, Dover's powder). Made by mixing 10 per cent powdered ipecac with 10 per cent powdered opium and 80 per cent powdered sugar of milk. Must be intimately and uniformly mixed. Used as an anodyne and diaphoretic.

Dose, 0.33 to 1 gm. (5 to 15 grains).

Ipecacuanhae Fluidextractum (fluidextract of ipecac). Used to prepare sirup of ipecac, and is also an ingredient-in various cough mixtures and liquid preparations administered in the treatment of gastric indigestion.

Acts in doses of 0.003 to 0.006 mil (1/20 to 1/10 minim) as a gastric tonic or stomachic; in doses of 0.032 to 0.1 mil (l to 2 minims) as an expectorant; and in doses of 1 to 2 mils (15 to 30 minims) as an emetic.

Ipecacuanhae Pulvis (powdered ipecac). The root of Cephaelis ipecacuanha or Cephaelis aluminata (family Rubiacea) dried and finely powdered. Used for all the purposes for which the fluidextract is prescribed, and also in the treatment of amebic dysentery in doses of 4 to 6 am. (60 to 90 grains) given on an empty stomach, and every precaution taken to prevent its emetic action.

Lithii Citras (lithium citrate). A fine white powder. Made by neutralizing lithium carbonate with citric acid in solution, evaporating, and drying. Used as an antirheumatic, diuretic, and antilithic, and to remove uric acid from the blood.. Given In doses of 0.65 to 2 gm. (10 to 30 grains).

Magnesii Oxidum (magnesium oxid, magnesia). A white, very bulky, and very fine powder. Made by calcining magnesium carbonate. Used as an antacid and laxative.

Dose, 0. 0.065 to 4 gm. (10 to 60 grains).

Magnesii Sulphas (magnesium sulphate, Epsom salt). Small, prismatic, needle-shaped crystals. Colorless and odorless. Made by treating native magnesium oxid with sulphuric add. Used very largely as a cathartic and laxative. One of the saline purgatives.

Dose, 5 to 30 am. (1/8 to 1 oz.).

Menthae Piperitae Oleum (oil of peppermint). A volatile oil distilled from the leaves and flowering tops of peppermint. A colorless, oily liquid, having a pure mint odor and taste. Used as a flavor, as a stimulant, and carminative.

Dose, 0.065 to 0.83 mil (1 to 5 minims). It is the active ingredient in spirit of peppermint.

Menthol. A stearopten obtained from oil of peppermint by fractional distillation. Colorless, prismatic or needleshaped crystals. An ingredient in the oil sprays for the nose and throat, and locally as an anodyne application in the treatment of neuralgic pains.

Methylis Salicylas (methyl salicylate, oil of gaultheria, oil of wintergreen, oil of teaberry). A volatile oil distilled from the leaves of Gaultheria procumbens. A colorless or pale yellow, oily liquid, having a fragrant odor and burning taste. Prepared synthetically by distilling salicylic acid or a salicylate with methyl alcohol and strong sulphuric acid. Used as a flavor and in the treatment of rheumatism both locally and internally.

Dose, 0.33 to 1.3 mils (5 to 20 minims).

Morphinae Diacetyl Hydrochloridum (morphin diacetyl hydrochlorid, heroin hydrochloric). The hydrochloric of a derivative alkaloid of morphin. Used as a sedative in the treatment of tubercular coughs it is said to lessen the severity of the paroxysms, and also the sweating.

Dose, 0.002 to 0.008 gm. (1/30 to 1/8 grain).

Morphinae Sulphas (morphin sulphate). A sulphate of the principal alkaloid obtained from opium. White, feathery, silky, crystals or masses. Odorless, but having a bitter, nauseous taste. Used largely as a sedative, analgesic, hypnotic, diaphoretic, and antispasmodic. It is also powerfully narcotic. Given in doses of 0.008 to 0,032 gm. (1/8 grain). (Persons in the habit of using this drug often take enormous doses.)

Morrhuae Oleum (codliver oil). A fixed oil expressed from the fresh livers of the cod, hake, haddock, etc. A pale yellow, oily liquid. Used in the treatment of wasting diseases to increase red blood corpuscles, body weight, and healthy cell formation.

Dose, 4 to 15 mils (1 to 4 fluidrams), either plain or in emulsion.

Myrrhae Tinctura (tincture of myrrh). A dark brown, Alcoholic liquid. Made by dissolving 200 am. of myrrh in sufficient alcohol to measure 1 liter. Used principally locally in diseases of inflamed mucous membranes, especially of the mouth, gums, etc. and in ptyalism. An ingredient in toothwashes. Given internally in doses of 0.65 to 4 mils (10 to 60 minims) as an astringent.

Nucis Vomicae Fluidextractum (fluidextract of nix vomica). Must contain 2.5 per cent alkaloids by assay. Used instead of the extract to prepare the tincture of nux vomica. Given as a stimulant, spinal, cardiac, respiratory, nervous, and muscular, in doses of 0.016 to 0.2 mil (l to 3 minims).

Opii Pulvis (powdered opium). A chocolate-colored powder, having a heavy narcotic odor, and hitter, characteristic taste. Powdered opium must contain not less than 10 per cent and not more than 10.5 per cent of crystallizable morphin. Gum opium is the concrete milky exudation obtained by incising the unripe capsules of Papaver somniferum Used for all purposes for which morphin is employed.

Dose, 0.032 to 0.13 gm. (1/2 to 2 grains).

Opii Tinctura (tincture of opium, laudanum). A dark red. dish-brown, alcoholic liquid, containing 10 per cent of opium in diluted alcohol. A convenient form for the administration of opium. Used for all purposes for which morphin is employed.

Dose, 0.33 to 1.32 mils (5 to 20 minims).

Opii Tinctura Camphorata (camphorated tincture of opium, paregoric, elixir of opium). The weakest of the preparations of opium, containing 0.4 per cent of opium in diluted alcohol, combined with camphor, benzoic acid, and oil of anise. Used largely as a sedative, hypnotic, analgesic, carminative, and to diminish secretions of the intestines, as required in some forms of diarrhea.

Dose, 1 to 4 mils. (15 to 60 minims).

Pepsinum (pepsin). A ferment or enzyme, obtained from the gastric glands of the hog. Used to assist gastric digestion in patients having a deficient secretion of gastric juices. Acts only upon albuminous foods. The Pharmacopeia requires that 1 grain must be capable of digesting 3,000 grains of finely divided coagulated egg albumen. Usually given in solution in doses of 0.065 to 1 gm. (1 to 15 grains). Acts only in an acid medium.

Petrolatum (vaseline, cosmoline, petroleum jelly). A yellowish or light-amber colored ointmentlike mass, having a slight fluorescence, petroleumlike odor and taste. Never becomes rancid, is nonirritating to the skin, but is not as readily absorbed by the skin as lard or wool fat. Will permit 10 per cent of its weight of water or aqueous liquids to be incorporated with it. It is the residue obtained in the distillation of petroleum oils and purified..

Petrolatum Liquidum (liquid petrolatum, mineral oil, Russian oil). A clear, colorless, odorless, and tasteless oily liquid. Obtained in distilling petroleum oils. Used as a basis for the oil sprays for the nose and throat. An ingredient in cantharides cerate. Largely used in the treatment of constipation, especially when there is fermentation. Its action is mechanical, as it is not absorbed, but simply oils the entire digestive tract and facilitates the passage of the fecal mass.

Dose, 8 to 30 mils (2 to 8 fluidrams) once or twice daily.

Phenylis Salicylas (phenyl salicylate, salol). Made by a synthetic process whereby the phenol group is made to unite with the salicylic-acid radical. A white crystalline powder, having a distinctive aromatic odor and taste. Used as an intestlnal antiseptic, antipyretic, antirheumatic.

Dose, 0.33 to 1 gm. (5 to 15 grains).

Physostigmine Sulphas (physostigmin sulphate, eserin sulphate). The sulphate of an alkaloid obtained from physostigma or Calabar bean (the "ordeal bean " of some native African tribes). Used as a powerful motor depressant (of value In the treatment of poisoning by strichnin and nux vomica) and as a myotic to counteract the effects of atropin upon the pupil.

Dose, 0.0006 to 0.002 gm. (1/100 to 1/30 grain). Solutions for the eye are one half to 1 per cent.

Plumbi Acetas (lead acetate, sugar of lead). Colorless, shining, transparent prismatic crystals or plates or heavy white crystalline masses. Efflorescent and absorbing carbon dioxin from the air. Made by neutralising lead oxid with acetic acid, with the aid of heat, evaporating, and crystallising. Used internally as an astringent in the treatment of diarrhea and externally as a lotion in the treatment of bruises and sprains, as a sedative and astringent.

Dose, 0.032 to 0.2 gm. (1 to 3 grains).

Potassii Acetas (potassium acetate). Fine, white, crystalline powder, having a strong odor of vinegar. Prepared by neutralizing potassium hydroxid, potassium carbonate, or potassium bicarbonate with acetic acid, evaporating, and crystallising. Used as a diuretic, diaphoretic, and laxative, and to render the urine alkaline. It is converted into potassium bicarbonate in the digestive tract.

Dose, 0.65 to 4 gm. (10 to 60 grains).

Potassii Arsenitis Liquor (solution of potassium arsenite, Fowler's solution). A light reddish-brown liquid, having a distinctive odor. Contains 1 per cent arsenic trioxid combined in solution with potassium bicarbonate, with the addition of compound tincture of lavender. Used as an alterative and tonic, and in the treatment of the chronic malarial fevers.

Dose, 0.065 to 0.3 mil (1 to 5 minims).

Potassii Bicarbonas (potassium bicarbonate). Colorless, small, irregular, flat crystals. Prepared by passing a stream of carbon dioxid into a solution of potassium carbonate, evapo. rating, and crystallising. Used as an antacid.

Dose, 1 to 4 gm. (15 to 60 grains).

Potassii Bitartras (potassium bitartrate, cream of tartar). White, gritty powder prepared from the deposit found in wine casks, argol. Diuretic and cathartic.

Dose, as a diuretic, 0.65 to 4 gm. (10 to 60 grains).

Dose, as a cathartic, 4 to 20 gm. (1 to 5 drams).

Potassii Bromidum (potassium bromid). olorless or white, cubical crystals or granular powder. Prepared by reacting on ferrous bromid potassium carbonate (both in solution), evaporating, and crystallising. Used as a nervous sedative and hypnotic.

Dose, 0.65 to 4 gm. (10 to 60 grains). In tetanus and strychnin poisoning 1/2 to 1 ounce may be given at one dose (15 to 30 gm.).

Potassii Chloras (potassium chlorate). Colorless, flat crystals, or white flaky or granular powder. This salt is now made largely by electrolysis. Used as a gargle and in the treatment of scarlet fever, diphtheria, and sore throat.

Dose, 0.33 to 1.3 gm. (5 to 20 grains).

Potassii et Sodii Tartras (potassium and sodium tartrate, Rochelle salt). Large, colorless, prismatic crystals or fine white powder. Made by neutralising potassium bitartrate with sodium carbonate (both in solution), evaporating, and crystallising. Used as a laxative and cathartic.

Dose, 4 to 30 gm. (1 dram to 1 ounce).

Potassii Hydroxidum (potassium hydroxid, potassa, potassium hydrate, caustic potash, potash lye). Obtained from wood ashes and other sources. Small white pencils or sticks. Must be preserved in tightly stoppered bottles, as it absorbs moisture and carbon dioxid from the air. Used externally as a caustic. Internally in the form of the 5 per cent official solution as an antacid.

Dose, 0.33 to 2 mils (5 to 30 minims).

Potassii Iodidum (potassium iodid ) . Colorless or white cubical crystals or white granular powder. Made by treating a solution of potassium hydroxid with iodin in slight excess, evaporating, and exposing the resulting salts to a red heat, dissolving' and crystallising. Used largely as an alterative in the treatment of syphilis, rheumatism, lead poisoning, etc.

Dose, 0.33 gm. (5 grains), gradually increased to as high as 8 gm. (120 grains), three or four times daily.

Protargol. Silver combined with protein. Contains about 8 per cent metallic silver in combination. Used externally principally in gonorrheal infections, in solutions of from one-half to 5 per cent.

Quinine Chlorhydrosulphas (quinin chlorhydrosulphate). Made by dissolving 10 parts of quinin sulphate in 3.3 parts of 25 ferrous bromid potassium carbonate (both in solution), evaporating, and crystallising. Used as a nervous sedative and hypnotic. Used for the administration of guinin hypodermically, on account of its greater solubility. Contains about 74 per cent of quinin.

Dose, 0.065 to 02 gm. (1 to 3 grains). Used for the same purposes as quinin and its other salts.

Quininae Sulphas (quinin sulphate). The sulphate of an alkaloid obtained from cinchona bark. White, silky, glistening crystals, or hard, prismatic needles. Used largely as an antiperiodic, tonic, and antipyretic, especially in the treatment of malarial fevers.

Dose, 0.065 to 1.3 am. (1 to 20 grains).

Resorcinol. A diatomic phenol. Used externally in the treatment of diseases of the skin in the form of ointments or lotions; internally in the treatment of gastric and intestinal catarrh, gastric ulcers, and enteritis. Sometimes used in solutions (1 per cent to 15 per cent) in the treatment of hay-fever, nasal catarrh, chronic otitis, and for washing out the stomach or bladder in diseased conditions of those viscera.

Dose, 013 to 0.33 am. (2 to 5 grains).

Ricini Oleum (castor oil). A fixed oil expressed from the, seeds of the castor-oil plant. A pale straw-colored liquid, thick and oily. Used as a purgative.

Dose, 8 to 45 mils one fourth to 1 1/2 fluidounces).

Santali Oleum (sandalwood oil, oil of santal). A volatile oil distilled from the wood of Santalum album. Obtained from the East Indies. A pale yellow, oily liquid, having a peculiar aromatic odor, pungent, spicy taste, and slightly acid reaction. Used as a stimulant, diuretic, disinfectant, and expectorant. Largely used in the treatment of inflammation of the genito urinary tract, bronchitis and chronic inflammatory conditions of the mucous membranes.

Dose, 0.33 to 1.3 mils ( 5 to 20 minims ).

Sapo (soap, white Castile soap). Soap prepared from sodium hydroxid and olive oil. Used in liniments, plasters, and as a pill excipient for resinous drugs. An ingredient in the official pills of opium.

Sapo mollis (soft soap, green soap). Soap prepared from potassium hydroxid and linseed oil A soft, ointmentlike, yellowish-brown mass. Used as a stimulating cleanser.

Saponis Linimentum (soap liniment, liquid opodeldoc). A pale straw colored liquid, made by dissolving soap, camphor, and oil of rosemary in alcohol and water and filtering the solution. Ued as an application to sprains, bruises, rheumatic and other pains. Not used internally.

Sinapis Emplastrum (mustard plaster). An incorrect name for mustard paper, charta sinapis. Made by extracting the fixed oil from ground mustard seed, mixing it with a solution of rubber, and spreading it upon thick, well-sized paper or muslin. It is used as a counterirritant application by dipping the mustard paper in water for a few seconds before applying.

Sinapis Nigra (black mustard). The finely ground seeds of black mustard. Used for the same purposes as the mustard paper when it is desired to apply this remedy over a greater surface or for a longer time. Made into the so-called mustard poultice, either by mixing into a paste with water or by adding a portion of flour to reduce its strength.

Sodii Bicarbonas (sodium bicarbonate, baking soda). Made by passing a stream of carbon-dioxid gas through a solution of sodium carbonate and collecting the precipitate. A white, opaque powder. Used as an antacid. Dose, 0.33 to 4 gm. (5 to 60 grains). In cases of hyperchlorhydria (excessively acid condition of the stomach), as much as 1 ounce may be given at one dose (30 gm.).

Sodii Boras (sodium borate, borax). Colorless, prismatic crystals or white powder, mined in the western part of the IJnited States in large quantities, and purified. Used as a diuretic and antacid (rarely administered).

Dose, 0.33 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains). Used largely in the making of soaps, to whiten them. An ingredient in many mouth washes, and is sometimes applied to ulcers in the mouth, either in the form of powder or mixed with honey.

Sodii Bromidum (sodium bromid). White granular powder. Prepared in the same manner as potassium bromid, and is used for the same purpose and in the same doses. It is less depressing than the potassium salt.

Sodii Carbonas Monohydratus (monohydrated sodium carbonate). Sodium carbonate containing 85 per cent of the pure anhydrous salt. Used in the sterilization of instruments. Used Internally (rarely) as an antacid.

Dose, 0.065 to 0.33 gm. (1 to 5 grains).

Sodii Citras (Sodium citrate). White, granular powder, with a cooling, saline taste, odorless, and slightly alkaline reaction. Made by adding sodium carbonate to a solution of citric acid until effervescence ceases, evaporating, and granulating the product. Used as a diaphoretic.

Dose, 0.33 to 1 gm. (5 to 15 grains).

Sodii Phosphas (sodium phosphate). Small colorless granular crystals, made by treating the inorganic portion of bones, first with sulphuric acid and then with sodium carbonate, filtering, evaporating, and crystallizing. Used as a laxative and cathartic and hepatic stimulant. Dose as a purgative, 15 to 30 gm. (1/2 to 1 ounce); as an hepatic stimulant, 2 to 6 gm. (30 to 90 grains).

Sodii Salicylas (sodium salicylate). White powder, having sometimes a faint pink tinge. Prepared by neutralising solution of sodium carbonate with salicylie acid, evaporating, and powdering. Antirheumatic, analgesic, and antipyretic. Used largely in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia, and tonsillitis.

Dose, 0.33 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains).

Sodii Thiosulphas (sodium thiosulphate, sodium hyposulphite, hypo.) Colorless, prismatic crystals. Made by decomposing soluble calcium thiosulphate with solution of sodium hydroxid or sodium carbonate, evaporating, and crystallising. Used internally (rarely) as an alterative. Used externally in the treatment of some skin diseases. Dose, 0.33 to 2 gm. (5 to 30 grains ) .

Strophanthi Tinctura (tincture of strophanthus). A 10 Percent tincture. Made by percolation with 65 per cent alcohol. Used for the same purposes as digitalis, but acts directly through the circulation and not primarily through the nerve centers. doses must be used with caution.

Dose, 0.1 to 0.5 mil (2 to 8 minims).

Sulphonethylmethanum (sulphonethylmethane, trional) . Made synthetically. Colorless, lustrous, crystalline scales. Used as a hypnotic and sedative.

Dose, 1 to 2 gm (15 to 30 grains).

Sulphur Lotum (washed sulphur). Made by treating sublimed sulphur with a weak solution of ammonia water and washing thoroughly to remove all traces of impurities. Used internally as a laxative and diaphoretic and externally in the treatment of skin diseases.

Dose, 0.65 to 4 gm. (10 to 60 grains).

Talcum Purificatum (purified talc). A native hydrous magnesium silicate, purified by washing with boiling water to which has been added a small quantity of hydrochloric acid, washing, drying, and pulverising. Used in the preparation of the official medicated waters and as a clarifying agent. Used externally as a dusting powder.

Terebenum (terebene). A colorless, oily liquid, made by acting on oil of turpentine with sulphuric acid. Valuable as a stimulating expectorant, especially in the treatment of chronic bronchitis.

Dose, 0.33 to 1 mil (5 to 15 minims).

Terebinthinae Oleum (oil of turpentine, spirits of turpentine). This is the volatile oil distilled from an exudation from various species of American pine. Used externally in liniments and as a rubefacient. Used internally in chronic bronchial catarrhs, as an expectorant, and in catarrhal conditions of the genito-urinary tract. A valuable diuretic, but must be used with caution, as large doses may produce violent irritation of the kidneys. Also as a remedy against worms, usually in the form of an emulsion.

Dose, 0.33 to 2 mils (5 to 30 minims).

Theobromatis Oleum (oil of theobroma butter of cacao). A yellowish-white solid. A fixed oil expressed from the roasted seeds of Theobroma cacao. A valuable agent for the preparation of suppositories, as it melts below the normal temperature of the human body. Used sometimes in ointments that are termed "skin foods.'' Not used internally, though it is nonpoisonous.

Thymol. A phenol obtained from oil of thyme and other volatile oils. Large, colorless, rhombic prisms. An ingredient in many of the oil sprays. An intestinal antiseptic, formerly employed in the treatment of typhoid fever, in doses of from 0.032 to 0.13 gm. ( 1/2 to 2 grains ) . In recent years it has proven to be a very valuable remedy in the treatment of hookworm disease, in which it is given in doses of 3 to 4 gm. (45 to 60 grains) after the patient has been prepared for its administration.

Thymolis Iodidum (thymol iodid, aristol). Chemically it is dithymol diiodid, and is prepared by adding thymol dissolved in sodium hydroxid solution to an aqueous solution of iodin and potassium iodid. A bright chocolate-colored or reddish-yellow precipitate is produced, which, when washed, collected, and dried, is thymol iodid. Used in surgery as a substitute for iodoform and as an external application to ulcers and skin diseases, either in the form of the dry powder or ointment.

Zinci Oxidum (zinc oxid, flowers of zinc, zinc white). A very fine white or yellowish-white powder, free from gritty particles. Made by treating native zinc carbonate with coal, in a special furnace, and collecting the zinc oxid formed in a chamber lined with muslin bags. Used externally as an astringent and exsiccant in the form of the dry powder or ointment. Internally as an astringent and antispasmodic. Dose, 0.065 to 0.33 gm. (1 to 5 grains).

Zinci Sulphas (zinc sulphate, white vitriol). Small colorless crystals, closely resembling magnesium sulphate. Made by treating metallic zinc with sulphuric acid, purifying, and crystallizing. Used as an emetic and an astringent internally, and as an astringent in the treatment of gonorrhea locally, in solution.

Dose as an emetic, 0.65 to 1.3 gm. (10 to 20 grains).

Zingiberis Fluidextractum (Fluidextract of ginger). Used to prepare the tincture of ginger by diluting 20 mils with sufficient alcohol to measure 100 mils. Stimulant, carminative, anodyne, and rubefacient. Dose, 0.33 to 1.3 mil (5 to 20 minims). The tincture is a better preparation to administer, as the fluidextract must be largely diluted because of its great pungency.