THE BRIDGE TO FRANCE
Edward N. Hurley
1. Annual Report, Department of Commerce, 1914.
2. Since the terms "gross" and "deadweight" as applied to tonnage will recur in this book, it may be well to define them. Gross tonnage is ascertained by arbitrarily dividing by 100 the whole interior cubic capacity of a ship, including the deck houses. Deadweight tonnage is the actual weight of a ship and its cargo at full-load draft. Deadweight tonnage is therefore usually greater than gross tonnage, by approximately 50 per cent. American tonnage is rated in deadweight, and British in gross tons.
3. Treasury Decisions, 1914, p. 34150. Also under Treasury Decisions, Customs, and Other Laws, Vol. 26, p. 183-194.
4. Annual Report of Secretary of Commerce, 1915, p. 215.
5. 38 Stat., L. 1193-1194.
6. Afterwards increased to seven by the Merchant Marine Act of 1920.
7. See Appendix A.
8. See Appendix B.
9. See Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, U. S. Sen., 65th Congress, 2d Session on Sen. Res. 170. p. 1085.
10. Second Annual Report
11. When such a contract is made, the owner absolves himself of all responsibility after the ship passes into the hands of the charterer.
12. Robinson: Transactions of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers. Vol. 25, 1917.
13. Hearings before the Committee on Commerce, U. S. Senate, 65th Congress, 2d Session. S. Res, 170, F. 60,
14. Probably the most authoritative summary of war losses of merchant vessels is that given by Sir Arthur J. Salter in his "Allied Shipping Control." I therefore append the following table which is a digest of his more detailed statistics:
War Losses of Merchant Vessels of Allied and Neutral Nations
from August, 1914 to November, 1918:
Gross Tons 1914 319,400 1915 1,312,216 1916 2,305,569 1917 6,078,125 1918 2,528,082 12,543,392
This total of 12,543,392 gross tons (18,815,088 deadweight tons) includes losses by submarines as well as by mines and raiders.
15. See Salter: "Allied Shipping Control."
16. Hearing before the Committee on Commerce, U. S. Senate, 65th Congress, 3d Session pursuant to S. Resolution 170. Part 8, p. 257.
17. "Quistconck " is the name by which Hog Island was known among the Delaware Indians and from which the present name was derived. In the language of the Delawares " quis-quis " meant " hog " and "unk" or "onk" meant a "place for," hence the word "quistconck" meant "hogs' place," the name which the Indians gave to the swampy or marshy island.
Quistconck or Hog Island was first surveyed in 1655 by Lindstrom when he was making a survey of the Delaware River for the Swedes. Lindstrom assigned to the island the name of "Keyser Eyland, Ile des Empereurs," doubtless with the intention of honoring his Emperor, the great Gustavus Adolphus.
In 1681 the island was purchased from the Indians by Otto Ernest Coch, Esq., the first white owner, evidence of the purchase being fully established by official records of Upland Court, the approval of which was necessary to complete the title at that time.
18. Sir Joseph was elevated to the peerage in 1922, and is now Lord Maclay.
19. Arthur J. Salter, a British expert on shipping, in his book, "Allied Shipping Control" refers to Hog Island and other incidents of our great effort as follows: "The ' Four-Minute' campaign to enroll labor, the foundation of the Immense Hog Island yard, where a ship was launched ten months after the ground was first broken, of the invention of the fabricated ship, which was manufactured instead of built; of standard parts being made in hundreds of yards and assembled only in the shipyards. The achievement was a wonderful example of the rapid adaptability of modern engineering skill in a country with ample resources in men and materials, and an adequate incentive to rapid effort."
20. New Merchant Marine. pp. 89-90.
21. The actual deliveries totalled 870,368 and therefore fell somewhat, but not grossly, short of those promised, as the following table shows:
March 162,200 April 162,805 May 258,941 June 286,422
22. Cabled translation in the New York Times, July 27, 1925.
23. The military program of 1917 provided for the gradual transportation to France of an army which would amount to one million men all told by the end of 1918, Allied Shipping Control, Salter, p. 174.
24. The military program of 1917 provided for the gradual transportation to France of an army which would amount to one million men all told by the end of 1918. Allied Shipping Control, Salter, p. 174.
25. Subsequently reduced to 150,000 tons, which reduction made it possible to carry out "program A."
26 Report of Chief of Transportation Service, 1919, p. 77.
27. Report of Chief of Transportation Service, 1919, p. 87.
29. Hearings before Select Committee on U. S. Shipping Board Operations. House of Representatives, 66th Congress, 3d Session, p. 4556.
30. I retired from the Shipping Board on July 31, 1919, and was succeeded by Judge John Barton Payne, who in the early days of our organization had served as general counsel. He was subsequently made Secretary of the Interior. Judge Payne was conscious of my promise to build six million tons of ships in a year, and four months after my retirement he sent me the following letter showing that the promise had been made good:
UNITED STATES SHIPPING BOARD
Washington, D. C.
December 10, 1919.
Dear Mr. Hurley:
Those skeptics who thought you were extravagant in stating you would build six million tonnage this year should be advised of the following results:
Deliveries from January 1 to December 1, 1919, are:
Steel 4,472,000 Wood 1,298,000 Composite 42,000 Concrete 6,500 Total 5,818,500
By January 1, 1920, the six million tons will be exceeded.
Very truly yours
(Signed) JOHN BARTON PAYNE,
We actually built and delivered in 1919, six million three hundred seventy-nine thousand eight hundred twenty-three (6,379,823) tons of shipping represented by 1180 vessels. This construction was accomplished under peace conditions and without overtime or the exertion of the high pressure which prevailed during the war. It confirmed my previous prediction that when our organization should be completed it would function so effectively as to enable us to build at least six million and possibly nine million tons in one year.
31. The "A" ship referred to was a fabricated cargo-carrier of 7500 deadweight tons, 401 feet long. The "B" ship, also fabricated, was 448 feet long, with a deadweight tonnage of 8000. The "B" ship was a combined cargo-carrier and troop transport. The figures given refer to Hog Island "A" and "B" ships.
32. The General's task was made doubly difficult by the Army's constantly changing program. With new demands coming from the front every month it was practically impossible for General Crowder to adhere to any set plan. Thus, it had been decided that 100,000 men were to be transported to France in January, 1918; the actual number sent abroad in July, 1918, was over 300,000. By the spring of 1919, 4,000,000 men were to be in France! "No such troop movement as that of the summer of 1918 had ever been contemplated, and no movement of any such number of persons by water, for such a distance, and such a time, had ever previously occurred."---Ayres: "The War with Germany." (Washington, Government Printing Office, 1919.)
33. Infra, p. 204.
34. The retroactive feature was particularly unfortunate. The retroactive pay legally accrued even though a worker left shipyard employment. One can imagine the difficulties into which the Macy Board was plunged by this circumstance alone, in view of the huge labor turnover. Many of the strikes of 1918 were due to the difficulty in settling a retroactive pay policy; and the possibility of strikes always loomed up because some of the awards of 1917 and 1918 had actually expired before the Board had decided its policy. When the awards of October, 1918, were made, after the Labor Policies Board had been fruitlessly established, the question of retroactive pay was more easily settled. "There was never a time, however, when a considerable part of the work of examiners did not have to do with questions of retroactive pay, and such questions continued to arise for months after the Board dissolved." (Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 283. History of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917-1919, p. 51.)
35. On September 5, 1918, the Emergency Fleet Corporation declared the rates of the Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board to be maximum as well as minimum. The armistice was signed soon after, so that the declaration could hardly be made effective.
36. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Bulletin 283. History of Shipbuilding Labor Adjustment Board, 1917-1919, p. 50.
37. Rublee: "The League of Nations" (Macmillan). 1920, p. 33.
38. "The League of Nations" (Macmillan). Article by Rublee, p. 44.
39. The President's many letters to me had a personal touch and were more than formal official communications. Usually they were addressed to me as, "My dear Hurley," and I prize them highly. They were my inspiration to carry on. Knowledge that the President was back of our every effort was most encouraging to our organization.
40. See Chapter XIV for discussion of the eighty-division program.
41. Although adopted, the signing of the armistice made it unnecessary to carry out the eighty-division program in accordance with the plans of the Supreme War Council.
42. The signing of the armistice made it unnecessary to allocate the additional tons of shipping promised to America.
43. Fayle: British Shipping During the War. Carnegie Foundation for International Peace. For a more detailed account of the naval difficulties see Jellicoe, "The Crisis of the Naval War," and Salter, "Allied Shipping Control."
44. To clarify the terms "train," "escort," and "convoy" I quote the-following definitions from Vice-admiral Gleaves' "History of the Transport Service "'Train' refers to a body of troop-ships or cargo-ships or other vessels requiring, protection and make passage in company. The term 'escort' designates the fighting ships which accompany and protect the 'train.' The entire assembly of ships consisting of both 'train' and 'escort' comprise a 'convoy.' For example, we would speak of a 'convoy' of twelve ships including the 'train' of six troop transports with an 'escort' of one cruiser and five destroyers, or 'escorted' by one cruiser and five destroyers."
45. "Report of Allied Maritime Transport Council, 1918-1919, p. 50.
46. It expired at 5 A.M. January 17, 1919.
47. Report of Allied Maritime Transport Council, 1918-1919, p. 65
48. Report of Allied Maritime Transport Council, 1918-1919, p. 288.
49. André Tardieu: "The Truth About the Treaty," p. 69.
50. André Tardieu: "The Truth About the Treaty," p. 66.
51. Report of President of U. S. Emergency Fleet Corporation, 1919, p. 31.
52. The Council of Ten was composed of the chiefs of the delegations of the five principal powers, and their ministers of foreign affairs.
53. See Report of Allied Maritime Transport Council for 1918. Part 2.
54. Baker: "Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement."
55. Baker: "Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement."
56. Baker: "Woodrow Wilson and World Settlement."
57. This provision later proved an embarrassment to the British. It simply deprived the British shipyards of work.
58. See Appendix " C."
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